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Linuc Foundation Certified Cloud Practitioner



More details about certification and exam available on Linux Foundation website. The Linux Foundation introduced the certification in November 2022.

LFC Free training

Linux Foundation has a lot of free courses

Here are some that are useful for the exam:

Another useful training in Pawel's final test on his killercoda linux scenarios. what makes in good is not only excellent content but also the fact that the test is practical which is what real exam is about.


  • Exam can be taken remotely
  • 120 minutes to go through 20 tasks and questions
  • Questions are multiple-choice
  • Exam VMs run distro-agnostic Alpine based Linux
  • Vim/Nano editors are available
  • Man pages are available
  • Both practical task and theoretical questions
  • Chrome browser recommended for the exam
  • Passing score is minimum 64%
  • 12 months to schedule and take the exam from the purchase date
  • One free retake
  • Certification valid for 3 years

Exam topics

Topic% of exam questions
Essential Commands20%
System Configuration15%
Virtualization and Containers20%
GitOps Basics25%

The exam is heavy on Linux questions and going through the linux tools and command line utilities course is very helpful. Working with archives, using regex, grep, creating and mounting file systems, permissions, ownership, all this is important to know very well in a practical application.

Familiarity with git is also important, but nothing too advanced. Definitely refresh on ip related config and cloud-init in detail.

Learning Plan

Each section references various skills needed to pass the exam.

If you don't want to install a linux VM, a good way to get some hands on. practice is to use interactive killercoda linux environment. You can also use some of the predefined scenarios, such as excellent scenarios by Pawel Piwosz.

Although the exam environment is not ubuntu, the core commands are the same.

Commands help

It is often easier to use the --help flag of a command rather than going through man pages. Here are a few useful tricks

Grep in help output

When using the --help parameter it is not possible to grep on the result. Instead use the built in pager search functionality. For example:

ls --help | less and press / to get into search mode.

Check what commands are available

If you get stuck and don't know what commands are available, for example for creating block devices, check the /sbin and /bin directories content.

Using man pages

Man pages are available in the exam environment. Learn how to use them effectively alongside command builtin help. Each man page belongs to one of the below sections.

Alternatively to man you can use info

A section is a number in brackets with the man page name.

✔ section 1: Shell commands and applications
✔ section 4: Network services – if TCP/IP or NFS is installed Device drivers and network protocols
✔ section 5: Standard file formats – for example: shows what a tar archive looks like.
✔ section 6: Games
✔ section 7: Miscellaneous files and documents
✔ section 8: System administration and maintenance commands
✔ section 9: Obscure kernel specs and interfaces

The format in general for pages in man is:

Letters in bold are to be written exactly as they are. Words in between [] are options, that is, they can be sent as arguments to the command. Letters in italic are to be substituted with your arguments.

To identify what man pages sections the command belongs to, use whatis command. For example whatis passwd to identify what sections a given command is part of.

This is equivalent to man -f passwd

Getting man help is easy: man man

It's possible to use /search and n/N to navigate the search results. Search also support regex so /^(\s*\-v) would search for lines starting from -h

If you know that the command is in multiple sections (like passwd for example) you can.

man passwd.5

Search for man pages with certain keyword, for example man -k directory would show all the man pages that have a directory word in them. This can be extended with grep and focus search on specific actions. man -k directory | grep -i crate.

Essential Commands

Search for, compare, and manipulate files and file content

Searching for files

Use find command to search for files.

  • Find all files in root directory and list them with full path
click to see the answer
find $PWD -maxdepth 1 -type f
  • Find all log files in the /var directory, but search only 1 subderictory deep.
click to see the answer
find /var -maxdepth 2 -name "*.log"
  • list files in the /usr/local/bin directory. Output the listing to the screen AND redirect it to a ~/temp.txt file
    click to see the answer
    ls /usr/local/bin | tee ~/temp.txt
Compare files
  • Compare two text files side by side and ignore white space.
click to see the answer
diff --side-by-side --ignore-all-space file1 file2
Create files
  • Create 5 files named file1 to file5 using one command.
touch file{1,2,3,4,5}
  • ls (1) - list directory contents
  • cat (1) - concatenate files and print on the standard output
  • rm (1) - remove files or directories
  • mv (1) - move (rename) files
  • mkdir (2) - create a directory
  • mkdir (1) - make directories
  • rmdir (2) - delete a directory
  • rmdir (1) - remove empty directories
  • file (1) - determine file type
  • ln (1) - make links between files
  • tail (1) - output the last part of files
  • head (1) - output the first part of files
  • less (1) - opposite of more
  • more (1) - file perusal filter for crt viewing
  • touch (1) - change file timestamps
  • wc (1) - print newline, word, and byte counts for each file

Use pipes and shell input/output redirections

Pipeing takes output of one command and makes it an input of another command.

Redirection takes output of a command and redirects it into a file or process.

Analyze file content using regular expressions

Using vim here is preferred as vim comes with extensive help system. Just type :h regex to get basic info about regex syntax.

Use egrep for command line regular expressions, for example egrep "Dec 11| Dec 10" testdates.txt

To practice regular expressions use regular expressions 101.

Linux Foundation has a comprehensive regex cheatsheet.

Create and work with archives

unzip, tar, cpio

ln and ln -s

List, set, and change file access permissions

chmod, chown, setfacl (ubuntu derivatives only)

System Configuration

Install software packages

Depending on the system.

Create and maintain filesystems

Administer local user and group accounts

Create user: useradd, groupadd,

Configure and set system time and timezone

  • check timezone with timedatectl
  • ls -l /etc/localtime
  • timedatectl set-timezone CET

Configure networking and local hostname resolution

RedHat ip command cheatsheet

ip commands

Changes made with the ip command take immediate effect, there is no need to reboot.

Good guide here

in older liux distributions there was ifconfig command. It has limited capabilities compared to the ip command.

Description: display and change the state of network interfaces.

Use cases:

  • identify networking interface for cluster connectivity (ens3)
  • show MAC address on the ens3 network interface (ip link show dev ens3)

ip addr

Description: display IP Addresses and property information assigned to network interfaces.

Use cases:

  • check network range of cluster nodes

ip -4 addr

Show all ipv4 addresses of all devices

ip route or route

Description: view routing table on the host.

Use cases:

  • check default route for dns resolution (ip route show default)


Description: Using the arp command allows you to display and modify the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache. An ARP cache is a simple mapping of IP addresses to MAC addresses. Each time a computer’s TCP/IP stack uses ARP to determine the Media Access Control (MAC) address for an IP address, it records the mapping in the ARP cache so that future ARP lookups go faster.

Use cases:

  • check MAC address of a node

DNS commands


Description: query DNS server to resolve domain name

Use cases: check if k9s DNS server (like Core DNS) is working correctly


Description: query DNS server to resolve domain name, similar to nslookup but returns more details

Use cases: check if k9s DNS server (like Core DNS) is working correctly

services commands

ps -aux | grep <service-name>

Use cases:

  • find paths to certificates and other settings for CNI etc ps -aux | grep kubelet

network status

netstat -plnt

Description: In computing, netstat (network statistics) is a command-line tool that displays network connections (both incoming and outgoing), routing tables, and a number of network interface (network interface controller or software-defined network interface) and network protocol statistics

Use cases:

  • check


ss -lp


Identify and inspect processes and services

ps, pskill, netstat

Health-check and repair network services

Identify and inspect storage issues

Troubleshoot containers

What kind of containers?

Virtualization and Containers

Create and manage local and cloud-hosted Virtual Machines

virtualbox, quemu

Use cloud-init to initialize cloud-hosted Virtual Machines

ubuntu official docc

cloud init tutorial


Create and manage application containers (Podman or Docker)

There is a free service there you can spin up a few vms (some of them already have docker swarm preinstalled) and exercise without installing anything on your machine!

Interactive online docker environments on demand: docker

Understand the need for container orchestration

Docker CLI syntax

Docker CLI has following syntax:

Syntax: docker <docker-object> <sub-command> <-options> <arguments/commands>

Example: docker container run -it ubuntu

Docker Components

Docker Architecture Sources:

Container Layer

By default all docker image layers are immutable (read-only). When container is created using docker run command, an additional mutable (read-write) layer is created. This layer is only there for the duration of container lifetime and will be removed once container exits. When modifying any files in a running container, docker creates a copy of the file and moves it to container layer (COPY-ON-WRITE) before changes are saved. Original files as part of the image are never changed.

Images and Registry

Creating docker images

Docker image is an immutable blueprint based on which containers are created.

Difference between CMD and ENTRYPOINT

CMD and ENTRYPOINT sections of Dockerfile are used to instruct docker what to do once container is started.


This section defines what command will be executed once container starts. For example:

  • defining CMD ["httpd"] in a Dockerfile building httpd server will start httpd Apache server based on the image used
  • running httpd image with command override docker run httpd printenv will override default CMD with printenv command which will output environmental variables to the terminal
  • command can be specified as regular command: CMD httpd or as json array CMD ["sleep", "5"]

in json array syntax first element of an array is command itself and all subsequent elements are parameters/options


This section defines what command will be executed once container starts and cannot be overridden by default (you need to use --entrypoint flag to force override). All arguments passed via docker run will be appended to command defined in ENTRYPOINT

  • CMD and ENTRYPOINT work great together where ENTRYPOINT defines "fixed" command to be executed once container starts and CMD provides default, but overrideable arguments to run the container in different ways.

It is required to specify both CMD and ENTRYPOINT in a json array format for the override to work

How to control resources utilization by a container


Default CPU share per container is 1024

Option 1: If host has multiple CPUs, it is possible to assign each container a specific CPU.

Option 2: If host has multiple CPUs, it is possible to restrict how many CPUs can given container use.

It's worth noting that container orchestrators (like Kubernetes) provide declarative methods to restrict resources usage per run-time unit (pod in case of Kubernetes).


Option 1: Run container with --memory=limit flag to restrict use of memory. If a container tries to consume more memory than its limit, system will kill it exiting the process with Out Of Memory Exception (OOM). By default container will be allowed to consume same amount of SWAP space as the memory limit, effectively doubling the memory limit. Providing of course that SWAP space is not disabled on the host.

Ports mapping

Ports mapping always goes from HOST to CONTAINER, so -p 8080:80 would be mapping of port 8080 on host to port 80 on container.


Hint: Prefer using "-p" option with static port when running containers in production.

How to copy files

Copying files is very easy, first parameter after cp command is source and second destination.

  1. Copy file from host to continuer: docker container cp /tmp/file.txt container_name:/tmp/file.txt
  2. Copy file from container tp host: docker container cp container_name:/tmp/file.txt /tmp/file.txt

Check logs to troubleshoot docker service

  • Check system logs: journalctl -u docker.service
  • Check free space on the host: df -h, use docker container prune or docker image prune to get rid of stale containers/images

Where Images are pulled from?

By default docker will pull images from configured images repository (Docker Hub by default), but it's possible to specify build directive instead of image with a path to Dockerfile

GitOps Basics


Use the Git version control system

Perform change/code review

Work on version control and collaboration platforms (GitHub, GitLab)

Understand models of change management

Run commands on multiple systems and capture output

Automate configuration management

Logging in docker

Default logging drive for docker is json-file. To change logging driver to for example splunk, update deamon.json, like so:

echo ‘{“log-driver”: “splunk”}’ > /etc/docker/daemon.json


Docker Core Networking

Docker server components

Docker Server Components

Docker daemon stop behavior

By default once docker deamon is stopped or crashes all containers will be stopped as well.

To change this behavior set "live-restore: true" in /etc/docker/deamon.json config file.

Docker port mapping

Docker Port Mapping

Docker Networking

Docker Networking Mindmap


Important Containers can only communicate on a user defined bridge/host network

Useful Commands

This section describes useful docker CLI commands in following format:

Command: - docker command syntax

When is it useful: - common usecases when command should be used

Result: - what is the expected behavior or

Check Docker Status

Command: docker system info

When is it useful: quickly see how many containers are running and what is the status of host OS

Result: information about docker host environment and containers

Remove all unused docker artifacts

Command: docker system prune --all

Command Variation: docker system prune --all --volumes

When is it useful: when learning or experimenting with docker, it is useful to clear unused artifacts without resetting the whole environment. Command variation with --volumes flag will also remove volumes.

Result: following will be removed:

  • all stopped containers
  • all networks not used by at least one container
  • all images without at least one container associated to them
  • all build cache
  • volumes (if --volumes flag is used)

Stop all running containers

Command: docker container stop $(docker container ls -q)

When is it useful: quickly stop all running containers at once.

Result: all containers are stopped.

Setup container hostname

Command: docker container run -it --name=ingress --hostname=nginx nginx

When is it useful: default hostname is container id, setting up recognizable hostname can help with logging etc.

Result: container hostname is set to custom one.

Automatically remove a container when on exit

Command: docker container run -d --name=ingress --rm nginx

When is it useful: run a container and automatically remove it once stopped. This is very usefully when running CI/CD containers.

Result: container starts and is removed once it's stopped.

Add or remove capabilities for the user running a container

Command: docker run --cap-add/--cap-drop KILL nginx or docker run --privileged nginx

When is it useful: This command is useful when elevating or dropping privileges on the user running container. By default containers run with limited root privileges. Second command runs container with full user privileges.

Result: container is run with expected privileges.

Filter results using --filter flag

Command: docker search --filter=stars=3 --no-trunc busybox

When is it useful: Results of almost every docker command can be filtered using --filter key=value flag. Refer to docker documentation to check what filter options are supported for given command.

Result: command output filtered as per filter flag.